myz-vgb.ru A Business Encyclopedia

Operant Conditioning

Definition: The Operant Conditioning theory states that people are likely to emit responses that are rewarded and will not emit any responses that are neither followed by any reward nor punishment. Thus, an individual tries to establish an association between a particular behavior and consequence.

The Operant Conditioning Theory is given by B.F. Skinner, who believed that behavior is voluntary and is determined, maintained and controlled by its consequences. According to him, one must focus on the external or observable causes of behavior rather than the internal mental events such as motivation, thoughts, feelings, etc.

B.F. Skinner performed an experiment; wherein the Rat was placed in a glass box, called as a “skinner box.” In that box, there were two levers, one attached to the feeding tube, while the other produced the electric shock. The rat pressed the first lever attached to the tube and got the food to eat, but as soon as it pressed the other lever, it got the shock. A rat discovered from its actions, the lever which is rewarding and the one which gives a shock (negative response) and pressed only that lever which resulted in food. Thus, Skinner observed, that the rate of response, as well as the change in the response, was seen after the behavior was performed, not before.

Often, the operant conditioning is also called as an Instrumental Conditioning, which means learning is developed through the rewards and punishments given for a particular behavior. There are three elements that result in the development of a new behavior; these are:

  1. Stimulus Situation (the event or object)
  2. Behavioral Response to the situation
  3. Consequence of a response

Example: A vehicle driver applies the brakes in order to avoid the accident, thus, the possibility of an accident without the application of the brakes is stimulus situation. The application of brake is the behavior and escape from the accident is the consequence of behavior.

Thus, through this process, an organism learns to distinguish between the behaviors that are rewarding and try to engage them in those behaviors.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Shares

Related pages


meaning of induction programadvantages and disadvantages of m commercearbitrage meanaquafina marketing strategyintergroup developmentansoff growth matrixrfr definitioncorrelation on a scatter graphcoercive power definitionherzberg hygieneinstrumentality theorydefine payout ratioabout nps schememonetarist theory of inflationscatter diagramwholesaler channeljob enrichment defineliquidity ratio explanationtransaction motivedebtors turnover ratiochannel member definitionthe employees provident fund scheme 1952 account statusbank draft meaningappropriation meaning in teluguindifference map in economicsoligopoly definition and examplesmonopoly hindi meaningdefinition of probability samplingis commission a variable costjudgemental sampling techniquefincinginventory turnover ratio exampledescription of classical conditioningpolycentric definitioninfluences on buyer behaviourthe monetarist theorydeterminant definition economicsdivestiture meaningtypes of cross elasticity of demanddefine deontology theoryexamples of job enrichmentlinear programing simplex methodpavlov behaviour theoryhow to calculate national income from gnpdeontological theory definitionequity linked savings schemesoligopolistic market definitionformula of fixed assets turnover ratioq sort scalecontingency leadership styleassumptions meaning in urduassumption of diminishing marginal utilityheadcount dashboardcash cow definitiondefinition of indifference curve in economicswhat is monetarist economicsmarginal costing for decision makinghindi meaning of delegationattrition dashboarddefinition of npvordinal approach to consumer behaviournet demand and time liabilities meaningwhat is nbfcopen end mutual fund definitionethnocentric orientation company examplejudgemental meangordon allport trait theoryoperating lease finance leasetuckmans stages of group interactiontrend projection method of demand forecastingtqm meaning definitionretrenchment strategies in strategic managementphases of bprbank neft timingscommunicating with subordinatesherzberg motivation theoriesforecostingdefine truncateindifference curve in hindinational savings certificates india